¿Sobre qué voy a investigar?

Por Jacqueline Hurtado, 04/02/2016 - 09:41
¿SOBRE QUÉ VOY A INVESTIGAR?
Seleccionar un tema de investigación es la primera fase de todo proyecto de investigación. Implica escoger el tema y precisar la comprensión, extensión y delimitación del mismo. De igual forma, tiene que ver con escoger cuáles serán los eventos de estudio, las unidades de estudio, el contexto, el enfoque que se le va a dar al estudio, las teorías que lo sustentarán, y formular la pregunta de investigación.
 
La delimitación corresponde a la fase exploratoria de la investigación, la cual surge cuando se plantea la posibilidad de investigar, pero aún no se tiene pregunta de investigación. Podemos decir que sabemos qué investigar cuando ya tenemos una pregunta de investigación, con todo lo que implica su formulación.
 
Si un tema no está delimitado correctamente, pueden surgir dificultades y problemas en las fases siguientes. Por ejemplo, buscar información que no se relaciona con los objetivos, definir un evento que no corresponde, o terminar investigando, sin querer, algo diferente. Esto además, puede tener implicaciones en la recolección de datos, ya que propicia que se escojan instrumentos de medición incorrectos.
 

¿Cómo selecciono un tema de investigación?

El tema puede ser seleccionado a partir de:
  • Observaciones y/o experiencias del investigador
  • Reflexiones
  • Diálogos y consultas
  • Solicitudes de otros (personas, instituciones, empresas)
  • Inquietudes
  • Revisiones bibliográficas.

Observar para encontrar posibles temas

Podemos observar:
  • Aspectos de la cotidianidad que pueden ser estudiados, explicados o mejorados.
  • Situaciones de carácter social, político, económico o psicológico que requieran ser solucionadas.
  • Situaciones que se presentan en el contexto de trabajo o de estudio del investigador.

Reflexionar para escoger un tema

La reflexión ayuda a discernir acerca de los aspectos más relevantes de una situación, las consecuencias de esa situación, la pertinencia de los posibles temas y aporta criterios para decidir. La reflexión implica:
  • Análisis e interpretación de las observaciones en donde percibimos situaciones no resueltas, dificultades en contextos, etc.
  • Identificación de los  aspectos que participan de la situación: componentes, causas, consecuencias, implicaciones...
  • Identificación de teorías o análisis personales que quieren ponerse a prueba.

Diálogo y consultas para contextualizar el tema

La consulta nos permite someter a otro criterio nuestras reflexiones, escuchar opiniones y ver otros puntos de vista acerca de posibles situaciones a estudiar. Se puede hacer como:
  • Torbellinos de ideas con base en intereses o motivaciones específicos
  • Consultas a expertos sobre posibles temas a investigar.
  • Diálogos con colegas del área que puedan sugerir inquietudes y problemáticas.

Solicitudes de otros para vincularnos iniciativas en marcha

A veces  las iniciativas de investigación pueden venir de otras personas que nos aportan ideas interesantes a las cuales nos podemos vincular, por ejemplo:
  • En algunas ocasiones, las empresas que tienen necesidades puntuales, permiten que estudiantes investiguen la problemática a fin de encontrar una solución.
  • Las instituciones académicas y sus profesores pueden tener definidas líneas de investigación que pongan a disposición de los investigadores para continuar desarrollándolas.
  • Las universidades y otras instituciones a veces tienen centros y grupos de investigación con temáticas novedosas e interesantes.

Inquietudes para investigar lo que nos gusta

Un aspecto fundamental es escoger un tema que nos agrade y que nos entusiasme. De no ser así no podríamos dedicar tanto tiempo y esfuerzo a la investigación. Un tema es elegible cuando
  • Se refiere a algo que te inquieta, te interesa o te preocupa.
  • Cuando involucra algo de lo que desearías conocer más
  • Cuando tiene que ver con una necesidad apremiante o alguna circunstancia que no marcha según lo esperado, la cual quisieras modificar a través de alguna acción.

Revisión bibliográfica para aclarar y precisar el tema

Al revisar libros, trabajos de grado, informes de investigación, revistas científicas, prensa, etc, podemos detectar:
  • Predicciones o explicaciones en investigaciones previas que aún no se han confirmado.
  • Lagunas del conocimiento, como asuntos que aún no han sido explicados.
  • Investigaciones contradictorias y que requieren mayor profundidad.
  • Avances teóricos, así como nuevos instrumentos y equipos.
  • Nuevas aplicaciones en diferentes áreas de investigaciones anteriores.
  • Intentos de generalizar resultados de investigaciones encontradas, a otras áreas o contextos, probando en nuevas muestras con diferentes características.
Ahora sólo nos queda prestar atención a las múltiples posibilidades para encontrar ese tema que nos apasiona y nos permitirá desarrollar una investigación exitosa y útil.

30 Minutos Asesoria

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